URBANISATION PROCESS IN MALAYSIA
Malaysia has been an independent country since 31st August 1957. After 55 years of independence, Malaysia has developed tremendously. With economic growth strongly and development achieved so fast and dynamically, Malaysia has the key to keep on track to be as what we dreamed it to be, a well-developed country by year 2020. People enjoyed political stability, economic prosperity and social justice are balance and equally distributed to all. Education continues to drive people to become a modern nation and respected all over the world and this has brought Malaysia to stay stable and competitiveness with other developing country and stay positive. Malaysia has move from an agricultural basis to an industrial country within 55 years of independence. From rural to urban, Malaysia has develop more than what we expected in very short time. The urbanization process that brings us come forward from a peaceful village into a metropolitan city has become something that we cannot avoid and need to accept.
Urbanization as defined by United Nation is the movement of people from rural to urban areas resulting in concentration of population in urban areas or cities (Questia, 2013). It is a multi-dimensional process which not only involves changes in place of residence and economic pattern but it is also result in changes in the migrant’s believes, attitudes and behaviour patterns (Sharma, 2012). Urbanization may be driven by local and global economic and social changes and is generally a product of modernization and industrialization. It has an impact to the economic and environmental changes. Economically, urbanization drives up prices, especially basic consumer products, and real-estate, which can force original residents to move to less-desirable neighborhoods (Boundless.com, 2013). Such factors in urbanization have change an ideology or human behavior in people who are trying to adapt the new environment that they live now. These can be drawn by a social mobility that moving those people from one status of life to another status or from other place to another places. In a way to be a modern nation and be a people of developing country, we have to accept the facts that our social life and culture value has changed a lot without we even noticed. Why this urbanization process is an issue today? In this assignment, we will try to delve what is it means with social mobility and how it can affect to society and family institution.
In this chapter, it will discuss on what is mean by social mobility and the type of social mobility. Social mobility refers to a movement of an individual or people or groups from one status to another. It involves change within the lifetime of an individual to a higher or lower status than the person had to begin with (Sociology Guide, 2011). Social mobility can also be a movement from one role to another role without any change in its position. There are a few types of social mobility known as vertical and horizontal social mobility, absolute and relative, and between generations. Social mobility may refer to classes, ethnic groups, or entire nations, and may measure health status, literacy, or education; however, more commonly it refers to individuals or families, and to their change in income (Boundless.com, 2013). Social mobility has changed the social institution and social structure with the effect of urbanisation process to suit the need of economic and social growth.
I. Vertical Social Mobility
Vertical mobility is one of the types of mobility, is the change of status from down to upward or from up to downward. Individual or groups may improve their position in the hierarchy by moving upwards or their position might worsen and they may fall down the hierarchy (Sociology Guide, 2011). For example, if the person get into a position of a political seat after winning the election; he or she may acquire money and exert influence over others because of their status, they are said to have achieved the individual mobility. On the other hand, a high ranking leader in government body has been prosecuted for corruption and charge to be guilty and sentence to jail, have said to step down from higher position to lower status the person had been before.
II. Horizontal Social Mobility
Horizontal mobility refers to movement from left to right or vice versa and it has not involved any changes in social position or status. Usually, this type of mobility only change the location, or geographically and does not affect the class or level of hierarchy for the individual or groups. When the son of a farmer’s has come to the city and worked as an industrial worker or a manager of one company has been taking a position in another company, there are no significant changes in their position in the hierarchy. These are the example of horizontal mobility that indicates a change in position within the range of same level of status.
III. Inter-Generational Social Mobility
As time factor is an important element in social mobility, this type of mobility takes place between generations. It is a change in status from which a child began within the parents, household to that of the child upon reaching the adulthood (Sociology Guide, 2011). It involves the change of the status of family members from one generation to another generation. For example, a driver’s son has become an architect. This is achieved after he finished a college education successfully. A downward inter-generational social mobility can also happen when an office assistant’s whose father is a doctor.
IV. Intra-Generational Social Mobility
This type of social mobility involves a change of single lifespan. It refers to the advancement of one person’s social level during the course of one’s lifetime (Sociology Guide, 2011). It can also be understood that the change of person status which occurs within person’s adulthood. For example, from a clerk one person has further his study and earn his degree. Soon after he graduated, he has been promoted to a managerial position.
Social mobility has changed the social institution and social structure with the effect of urbanisation process to suit the need of economic and social growth. Either we noticed or not, social mobility is a medium for us to change our life into something better or worst. In regard of that, people always forget that something they gain might result to loosing something else that is more valuable in life such their family and their loves one. In today society, the breakdown of family institution cases is climbing up uncontrolled. Divorce cases, child born outside the wedlock, abuse child or spouse mentally and physically also crime cases and drug abuse is in news every day. In the following chapter, it will discuss on what is mean by family institution, how the social mobility and urbanization process is contributing to the fall of family, and also the effects from the phenomenon.
UNDERSTANDING FAMILY INSTITUTION
In the society, a family can be considered as a nucleus to the bigger social communities. A traditional family structure consists of a father, mother and the children which we call as nuclear family. Two people who are legally married are actually a start of one family institution. Then it grows with a numbers of children born and expending to a generations. As for any religious or believes, marriage is a way for you to establish your own family function to produce and socialize children. As for traditional family, we learn and grown up to be as what our parents has formed us. According to Murdock (1949), the family is “a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, and reproduction.” (Burlein, 2000).
Family is considered as the oldest social institution in the world. As institution, it performs many important functions and valuable task. It provides a bedrock for its members (Kakepoto, 2001). Family is the first school for every children. It provides a fundamental learning process on how to speak, eat, read, play, react, and much more. A family also a shelter to provides love, protection, attention, and intimate relationship between members. A good family institution will result to produce a person who can communicate effectively toward the bigger social structure like community, school, work place, and even the nation.
When the country has developed, the family institution will also directly or indirectly affected due to rapid change of social mobility. A day care centre, school and domestic workers such maids and babysitter has taking over the family functions. Industrialized and urbanization have changed everything to be fast, punctual, and less emotion. Everybody were rushing in industrialization time than when it was agriculture. The family functions is neglected and everybody are busy with the daily core. This is result to more latchkey children and independence kids to emerged. They grown up and be more individualistic and self-centred person as they need to protect themselves rather than hoping the family to protect them. This is happen for a reason, parents need to work hard for money as today in any developed country, economic inflation is something that we cannot avoid. Everything has become more expensive. Education, medical, basic consumer products, real estate, and cost of living currently have been the reason why are the people working to hard and need to earn more money. As matter affect, these have result limited time to be spent with the family. In this day, where everybody are spending more time at the office than at home, people get less communication with their family, less respect, and less love bonding between them.
Divorce Cases Are Getting Higher With On-line Social Network
Divorce cases are getting higher day by day. Refers to the statistic by Department of Islamic Development Malaysia, the numbers of divorce cases are increasing in ten years from 13,403 cases in 2001 to 28,035 cases in 2010 (My Metro, 2013). There are so many factors in contributing to the fall of family institution. Communication breakdown, financial problems such as debt, cheating, and career establishment could be a favourite reason why the wedding lock can be broken. A social networking like Facebook twitter, instagram and such is a product of urbanization and industrialization. In modern community, people communicate on-line is a sign of modernization. With this as one of very much popular way to communicate, we get less intimate between family members because people spent more time with their gadget rather than with their family members. The chances for you to get cheated by your partner are getting higher when we are no longer have a control on each others. Not surprisingly, reports on the divorce cases shows that an affair in on-line social network is one of the most popular factor (My Metro, 2013). For example, an on-line dating, open discussion on marital problem and a wrong advice from inappropriate adviser is just worsen the situation that already worst. It is common in today life where we can see a family in their dinner table usually having their own time with their gadget and on-line games or social networking rather than having a communication between them. Divorce is the leading cause of childhood depression, as declared by The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Colvin). Children of divorce are 5 times more likely to be suspended from school; 3 times as likely to need psychological counselling 2 times as likely to repeat grade; are absent from school more; late to school more often; and show more health problem (Brody).
Financial Problem To Contribute The Breakdown of Family Institution
Financial is a major problem which contributing a lot in the breakdown of family institution. When people have to suffer from poverty and need to survive in current situation where everything is getting expensive, they tend to become more depressed person. In the world where money is important, the pressure to keep on surviving with life is getting obvious. People increasingly difficult to control emotions, being grumpy, intolerant, irrational and depressed. All this can lead to fights, emotional and physical abuse and other social problems such as crime and drugs abused as a way to run from life pressure. For example, a father have to work harder, extra job and overtime is a normal situation. A mother no longer stay at home mother and need to work in order to help to support the family. This will also effect to the behaviour of the children who had a less monitoring from the parents who are too busy with their job. As financial stress increases, so does the likelihood of marital discord and breakup. As individuals become more depressed, they withdraw more from their spouse and offer less emotional support for examples expressing care and concern (Christopher G. Davis, 2004). Dr. Davis further explaining, parents (especially fathers) who are experiencing financial stress are less responsive to their children’s needs, less nurturing, less consistent in their parenting, and more inconsistent in the discipline of their children. Such parental behaviours may increase the children’s risk of socio emotional problems (e.g., low self-esteem, depression, impulsive behaviour), health problems, poor academic performance, deviant behaviour, drug and alcohol use, withdrawal from social relationships, and reduced aspirations and expectations (Christopher G. Davis, 2004). Conger and colleagues (Conger, 1993) have simplify the model of the impact of financial problem to individuals, and families as figure below;
Lack of Religiosity As A Factor That Ruin Family Institution
Lack of religiosity either in Muslims or non-Muslims family returns in more social problem happen. When people more focusing in preparing their children with science and technology education, they tend to alleviate the religious education for their children. Refers to the research report done by a several professors at International Islamic University Malaysia, it has been mentioned many a time that the deviant behaviours of teenagers is very much influenced by the negative exposure to the media and peer pressure, lack of religious knowledge, and lack of parental supervision. Therefore, it is important to study the relationship of these factors with social problems since they can directly contribute to the prevalence of social ills (Hazizan Md. Noon, 2003). A discussion on religiosity usually trigger controversies among people. In sociology religion was seen as one of social institution and it is not easy to measure the religiosity for individuals. It usually discussed separately from others topics such culture, social structure, social change and social stratification in many journals, books or publications on sociology. As remarked by McGuire:
….individuals differ in their ways of being religious, one person might express
religion by meditating regularly, another by attending church, another by reading
certain literature, another by participating in a civil rights demonstration.
In any religions, none of it are supporting any deviant behaviours to be practising by the follower. Behaviours such as free sex, violence towards other individual, child abuse, rape, and other heinous crime is heavily influenced by external elements that are inevitable effects of modernization and the concept of border-less world. Without a strong religious background during the upbringing, things are hard to avoid either among family members or the community as a whole. For example, based on the statistic by National Registration Department on 2009, there are 257,000 new born registrations are registered without the name of the father being stated since year 2000 to July, 2008 (Berita Harian Online, 2009). These is something that our people suppose have always forget or overlook when they are to busy with their job and never bother to care on what have happen among the family members or in their community and lack of religiosity have worsen the situation. This is something that wrong and not suppose to happen among people who have faith and have their believe in religion. Children who born outside the wedlock will grown up with low self –esteem, depression, impulsive behaviour, and withdrawal from social relationship upon looked down by society.
Education and Career Retention Opportunities
In order to make possible for the country to well developed, people need to complete themselves with education. The equal opportunity among citizen regardless of the gender has encouraged them to grab the chances to go as higher level they could go. These is something that can benefited them for their career movement and retention. When people are focusing on upgrading themselves with education and career, they have less intention to get involve with relationship and family comittment. These new trend are now getting popular among people and the numbers of people who get married late in their life or stay single is something that is norm today. This have give a big impact to the family institution as the population will getting slower and it will also effect to the development of the nation as macro (Nur Syahidah A.J, 2012). Other than that, we afraid that the idea of having a family outside the wedlock will be the option to those people who do not feel that the traditional nuclear family is important anymore. As in today world of unlimited information and education, there are some people who aggresively promoting the unhealthy life style such gay, free sex and family outside the wedlock. For example, now days there are NGO’s who are promoting and champion the lesbians, gay, bisexsual, and transgender lifestyle on the tickets of human rights. As we aware today that these group of people is getting bold and brave to revealed their lifestyle and try to influence the society to accept their ideas as a normal people and most of them were the people with higher education background and have a job as a professional.
This assignment paper are done with the idea to discuss and to find out what is the cause of the breakdown of family institution. With the process of urbanization that happen very fast in most of the city in Malaysia, people and the social structure in this country are facing the social mobilization from rural to urban and need to cope with the modernization and industrialization development. This have change the behaviour pattern and the idealism of the people that also contributing to the incremental effects of social problem that could no longer easily controlled. People need to look back to the root of the problem and find the solution. Behaviourism is a personal and individual control. The root of each problem comes from the individual themselves. Prevention should starts from the beginning of their lifetime. The childhood period are the most important time to be set as the backbone that could prevent from social problem to happen. A strong religious background to lead them on the right path and need to be on refreshing mode all the time as an alarm to the people. The traditional family structure should be maintained with more solid foundation to provide for the emotional and psychological protection to anyone who had to contend with the challenges of life in the face of modernization process. Living pressure can not be avoided, either we like it or not this is what we need to deal with in our life and how to deal with it is how we deal with our mind to keep on positive, keep the relationship between family members, give them the love and attention they need and learn how to manage time to balance your work with your spiritual needs.